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ACCA F2重要考点解析
  • 2015年12月08日
  • 10:22
  • 作者:高顿财经
  • 来源:高顿财经
  • 阅读:(199)
摘要:【高顿ACCA小编】2016年 ACCA 即将迎来一年四次考试,我们将第一时间公布考试相关内容,请各位考生密切关注高顿ACCA,预祝大家顺利通过ACCA考试。今天为大...
   【高顿ACCA小编】2016年ACCA即将迎来一年四次考试,我们将第一时间公布考试相关内容,请各位考生密切关注高顿ACCA,预祝大家顺利通过ACCA考试。今天为大家带来的是ACCA F2重要考点解析

  1.Target cost= target selling price – target profit = market price – desired profit margin.
 
  2.cost gap= estimated cost – target cost.
 
  3.TQM :
 
  ①preventing costs
 
  ② appraisal costs
 
  ③ internal failure costs
 
  ④external failure cost
 
  3.Alternative costing principle: ①ABC(activity based costing) ②Target costing
 
  ③Life cycle ④TQM
 
  4.Laspeyre=
 
  5.Paashe price index=
 
  7.Fisher =
 
  8.Time series: ①trend
 
  ②seasonal variation: ⑴ 加法模型 sum to zero; ⑵ 乘法模型 sum to 4 ③cyclical variation
 
  ④random variation
 
  9.pricipal budget factor 关键预算因子 :be limited the activities
 
  10.budget purpose :
 
  ①communication ②coordination ③compel the plan ④motivative employees ⑤resource allocation
 
  11.Budget committee 的功能:①coordinated ②administration
 
  12.Budget : ①function budget ②master budget : 1. P&L ; 2. B/S ; 3. Cash Flow
 
  13.Fixed Budget: 不是在于固不固定,而是基于一个业务量的考虑,financail expression.
 
  Flexible Budget: 包含了固定成本和变动成本,并且变动成本的变化是随着业务量的变化而改变。
 
  14.  Flexible Budget 的优点:
 
  ① recognize different cost behavior.
 
  ② improve quality and a comparison of like with like ③ help managers to forecast cost, revenue and profit.
 
  15.  Flexible Budget 的缺点:
 
  1假设太简单。
 
  2需要更多的时间准备预算编制。
 
  16.Controllable cost is a “cost which can be influenced by ” its budget holder. 大部分的变动成本是可 控的,non-controllable cost 为 inflation.
 
  17.Budget Behavior :
 
  ① participate approach
 
  ②imposed budget
 
  17.payback 投资回收期的缺点:
 
  ① ignore profitability
 
  ② the time value of money is ignored
 
  3 没有考虑项目后期带来的经济利益
 
  4 arbitray 武断
 
  18.payback 投资回收期的优点:
 
  ① easy to calculate ② widely use
 
  ③ minimize the effect of the risk and help liqidity
 
  ★ 如果在算投资回收期的时候,发生折旧,则需要加回折旧,因为折旧是非现金项目。
 
  20.(1+ real interst rate)*(1+inflation rate) = ( 1+ nominal interest rate)
 
  21.NPV = present value of future net cash flow – present value of initial cost
 
  22.永续年金=A/i
 
  23.每年的汇报是相同的就查看年金现值系数表,不同的就查看年金系数表。
 
  24.EAR=CAR=APR=(1+r/n)n – 1 有效年利率
 
  25.IRR:(based on cash flow analysis) ①IRR> cost of capital, NPV >0, worth taking
 
  ②IRR< cost of capital, NPV <0, not worthwhile.
 
  26.ARR=average profit/ average investment (ARR 是基于 profit) Average investment = (initial investment – residual value)/2
 
  27. type of standard: ①basic standard②current standard③ideal standard④attainable standard
 
  28.Variance
 
  一.Material Variance
 
  ⑴total material variance= standard cost –actual cost
 
  ⑵material price variance= (standard price – actual price )* actual quantity
 
  ⑶material usage variance=(standard usage of actual output- actual usage) * standard price.
 
  二.Direct Labor Variance
 
  ⑴standard pay – actual pay
 
  ⑵Labor rate variances= (standard rate – actual rate) * actual hrs of actual output ⑶Labor efficiency variances= (standard hrs of actual output – actual hrs) * standard rate
 
  三.Variable production overhead variances
 
  ⑴Total variable O.H. variance = standard cost – actual cost
 
  ⑵Variable O.H. expenditure variance = (standard rate – actual rate) * actual hrs
 
  ⑶Variable O.H. efficiency variance = (standard hrs of actual output – actual hrs) * standard rate
 
  四.Fixed O.H. expenditure variance
 
  ⑴Fixed O.H.  Expenditure variance= budget expenditure – actual expenditure
 
  ⑵Fixed O.H. volume = (actual output - budgeted volume) * standard hrs per unit * standard rate per hr. ⑶Capacity variance= (actual hrs worked – budgeted hrs worked) * standard rate per hr
 
  ⑷Efficiency variance= (standard hrs worked for actual output – actual hrs worked)* standard rate per hr
 
  ⑴+⑵:Fixed O.H. total variance= fixed O.H. absorbed – actual expenditure
 
  五.Sales variance
 
  ⑴Sales price variances = (actual price – budget price) * actual sales units
 
  ⑵ Sales volume variances = (actual sales units –budget sales units) * standard profit per unit (absorption)
 
  ⑶Sales volume variances = (actual sales units –budget sales units) * standard CPU (marginal costing)
 
  六.Idle time variances
 
  Idle time variance = (expected idle time – actual idle time)* adjusted hr rate
 
  29. The elements of a mission statement including:
 
  ①Purpose ②Strategy
 
  ③Policies and standards of behavior ④Values and culture
 
  30.A critical success factor is a performance requirement that is fundamental to competitive success.
 
  31.Profitability ratios
 
  ①Return on capital employed (ROCE)
 
  =profit before interest and tax /(shareholders’ funds+ long-term liabilities) × 100%
 
  ② Return on equity (ROE)=profit after tax / shareholders’ funds × 100% ③Asset turnover=sales/ capital employed× 100%
 
  =sales/(shareholders’ funds+ long-term liabilities) × 100% ④Profit margin= profit before interest and tax / sales × 100%
 
  Profit margin × asset turnover = ROCE
 
  32. Debt and gearing ratios
 
  ①Debt-to-equity ratio=long-term liabilities / total equity × 100% ②Interest cover=PBIT/ Interest× 100%
 
  33. Liquidity ratios
 
  ①Current ratio =current assets/ current liabilities
 
  ②Quick ratio ( acid test ratio)=current assets minus inventory / current liabilities
 
  34. Working capital ratios
 
  ①Inventory days= average inventory *365 / cost of sales ②Receivables days= average trade receivables * 365 / sales
 
  ③Payables days= average trade payables *365 / cost of sales (or purchases)
 
  35. Non-financial performance measures
 
  Non-financial performance measures are considered to be leading indicators of financial performance. 1 Market share ②Innovation ③Growth ④Productivity ⑤Quality ⑥Social aspects
 
  36. The balanced scorecard :
 
  ① financial perspective  ② external perspective
 
  ③ customer perspective  ④ learning and innovation perspective
 
  37. Benchmarking :
 
  ① Internal benchmarking
 
  ② Competitive benchmarking ③ Functional benchmarking ④ Strategic benchmarking
 
  38. Value analysis is a planned, scientific approach to cost reduction, which reviews the material composition of a product and the product's design so that modifications and improvements can be made which do not reduce the value of the product to the customer or user.
 
  39. Four aspects of 'value' should be considered: ① Cost value
 
  ② Exchange value ③ Utility value
 
  5 Esteem value
 
  40. ROI=PBIT / capital employed *100%
 
  Widely used and accepted; As a relative measure it enables comparisons to be made with divisions or companies of different sizes.
 
  41. RI=PBIT- Imputed interest * capital employed.
 
  Possible to use different rates of interest for different types of assets; Cost of finance is being considered.

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