• 全国热线：400-600-8011  ACCA F2重要考点解析
• 2015年12月08日
• 10:22
• 来源：高顿财经
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1.Target cost= target selling price – target profit = market price – desired profit margin.

2.cost gap= estimated cost – target cost.

3.TQM :

①preventing costs

② appraisal costs

③ internal failure costs

④external failure cost

3.Alternative costing principle: ①ABC(activity based costing) ②Target costing

③Life cycle ④TQM

4.Laspeyre=

5.Paashe price index=

7.Fisher =

8.Time series: ①trend

②seasonal variation: ⑴ 加法模型 sum to zero; ⑵ 乘法模型 sum to 4 ③cyclical variation

④random variation

9.pricipal budget factor 关键预算因子 ：be limited the activities

10.budget purpose :

①communication ②coordination ③compel the plan ④motivative employees ⑤resource allocation

12.Budget : ①function budget ②master budget : 1. P&L ; 2. B/S ; 3. Cash Flow

13.Fixed Budget: 不是在于固不固定，而是基于一个业务量的考虑，financail expression.

Flexible Budget: 包含了固定成本和变动成本，并且变动成本的变化是随着业务量的变化而改变。

14.  Flexible Budget 的优点：

① recognize different cost behavior.

② improve quality and a comparison of like with like ③ help managers to forecast cost, revenue and profit.

15.  Flexible Budget 的缺点：

1假设太简单。

2需要更多的时间准备预算编制。

16.Controllable cost is a “cost which can be influenced by ” its budget holder. 大部分的变动成本是可 控的，non-controllable cost 为 inflation.

17.Budget Behavior :

① participate approach

②imposed budget

17.payback 投资回收期的缺点：

① ignore profitability

② the time value of money is ignored

3 没有考虑项目后期带来的经济利益

4 arbitray 武断

18.payback 投资回收期的优点：

① easy to calculate ② widely use

③ minimize the effect of the risk and help liqidity

★ 如果在算投资回收期的时候，发生折旧，则需要加回折旧，因为折旧是非现金项目。

20.(1+ real interst rate)*(1+inflation rate) = ( 1+ nominal interest rate)

21.NPV = present value of future net cash flow – present value of initial cost

22.永续年金=A/i

23.每年的汇报是相同的就查看年金现值系数表，不同的就查看年金系数表。

24.EAR=CAR=APR=(1+r/n)n – 1 有效年利率

25.IRR:(based on cash flow analysis) ①IRR> cost of capital, NPV >0, worth taking

②IRR< cost of capital, NPV <0, not worthwhile.

26.ARR=average profit/ average investment (ARR 是基于 profit) Average investment = (initial investment – residual value)/2

27. type of standard: ①basic standard②current standard③ideal standard④attainable standard

28.Variance

一．Material Variance

⑴total material variance= standard cost –actual cost

⑵material price variance= (standard price – actual price )* actual quantity

⑶material usage variance=(standard usage of actual output- actual usage) * standard price.

二．Direct Labor Variance

⑴standard pay – actual pay

⑵Labor rate variances= (standard rate – actual rate) * actual hrs of actual output ⑶Labor efficiency variances= (standard hrs of actual output – actual hrs) * standard rate

⑴Total variable O.H. variance = standard cost – actual cost

⑵Variable O.H. expenditure variance = (standard rate – actual rate) * actual hrs

⑶Variable O.H. efficiency variance = (standard hrs of actual output – actual hrs) * standard rate

四．Fixed O.H. expenditure variance

⑴Fixed O.H.  Expenditure variance= budget expenditure – actual expenditure

⑵Fixed O.H. volume = (actual output - budgeted volume) * standard hrs per unit * standard rate per hr. ⑶Capacity variance= (actual hrs worked – budgeted hrs worked) * standard rate per hr

⑷Efficiency variance= (standard hrs worked for actual output – actual hrs worked)* standard rate per hr

⑴+⑵：Fixed O.H. total variance= fixed O.H. absorbed – actual expenditure

五．Sales variance

⑴Sales price variances = (actual price – budget price) * actual sales units

⑵ Sales volume variances = (actual sales units –budget sales units) * standard profit per unit (absorption)

⑶Sales volume variances = (actual sales units –budget sales units) * standard CPU (marginal costing)

六．Idle time variances

Idle time variance = (expected idle time – actual idle time)* adjusted hr rate

29. The elements of a mission statement including:

①Purpose ②Strategy

③Policies and standards of behavior ④Values and culture

30.A critical success factor is a performance requirement that is fundamental to competitive success.

31.Profitability ratios

①Return on capital employed (ROCE)

=profit before interest and tax /(shareholders’ funds+ long-term liabilities) × 100%

② Return on equity (ROE)=profit after tax / shareholders’ funds × 100% ③Asset turnover=sales/ capital employed× 100%

=sales/(shareholders’ funds+ long-term liabilities) × 100% ④Profit margin= profit before interest and tax / sales × 100%

Profit margin × asset turnover = ROCE

32. Debt and gearing ratios

①Debt-to-equity ratio=long-term liabilities / total equity × 100% ②Interest cover=PBIT/ Interest× 100%

33. Liquidity ratios

①Current ratio =current assets/ current liabilities

②Quick ratio ( acid test ratio)=current assets minus inventory / current liabilities

34. Working capital ratios

①Inventory days= average inventory *365 / cost of sales ②Receivables days= average trade receivables * 365 / sales

③Payables days= average trade payables *365 / cost of sales (or purchases)

35. Non-financial performance measures

Non-financial performance measures are considered to be leading indicators of financial performance. 1 Market share ②Innovation ③Growth ④Productivity ⑤Quality ⑥Social aspects

36. The balanced scorecard :

① financial perspective  ② external perspective

③ customer perspective  ④ learning and innovation perspective

37. Benchmarking :

① Internal benchmarking

② Competitive benchmarking ③ Functional benchmarking ④ Strategic benchmarking

38. Value analysis is a planned, scientific approach to cost reduction, which reviews the material composition of a product and the product's design so that modifications and improvements can be made which do not reduce the value of the product to the customer or user.

39. Four aspects of 'value' should be considered: ① Cost value

② Exchange value ③ Utility value

5 Esteem value

40. ROI=PBIT / capital employed *100%

Widely used and accepted; As a relative measure it enables comparisons to be made with divisions or companies of different sizes.

41. RI=PBIT- Imputed interest * capital employed.

Possible to use different rates of interest for different types of assets; Cost of finance is being considered.

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